Million Years Ago (TTOL)
Mean: 54.32 Mya
Median: 55.90 Mya



Felis catus


Canis lupus familiaris
54.3 Million Years Ago (TTOL)

55.9 Mya (median, 35 studies)

Click on timescale or black dots for more info.

Molecular Time Estimates

*Note: If you would like to suggest your publication for inclusion, and it is not yet in TimeTree (see list of studies), you can send us the reference information for the publication using the contact page.

Time Reference Year
56.2 Waku et al. 2016
53.6 Pozzi et al. 2014
49.8 Soares et al. 2013
57.5 Davies et al. 2013
54.2 dos Reis et al. 2012
59.2 Crottini et al. 2012
64.9 Nyakatura et al. 2012
42.9 Psouni et al. 2012
47.2 Soria-Carrasco et al. 2012
41.6 Wu et al. 2012
56.7 Meredith et al. 2011
39.7 Hallström et al. 2011
57.3 Fujita et al. 2010
59.2 Eizirik et al. 2010
48.1 Nilsson et al. 2010
64.1 Fritz et al. 2009
60.0 Hallström et al. 2008
57.5 Murphy et al. 2007
52.0 Arnason et al. 2007
53.0 Kitazoe et al. 2007
67.1 Bininda-Emonds et al. 2007
42.0 Kullberg et al. 2006
55.6 Poux et al. 2005
49.0 Hasegawa et al. 2003
60.6 Yang et al. 2003
55.0 Springer et al. 2003
57.0 Douady et al. 2003
56.4 Nikaido et al. 2001
57.1 Nikaido et al. 2000
54.1 Cao et al. 2000
49.6 Huelsenbeck et al. 2000
60.5 Waddell et al. 1999
46.2 Kumar et al. 1998
61.9 Montgelard et al. 1997

CAUTION: We recommend that the users carefully examine individual study results provided before using summary information.

How It Works

Two species or higher taxa are queried (e.g., cat and dog).

TimeTree looks for these species in the TTOL to find their most recent common ancestor and produces the time estimate available. All studies with published times of divergence for that evolutionary split are shown in a Table format. When one or both of the species are not present in TTOL, the NCBI taxonomy is scanned to find the closest relatives of the species or higher taxa requested by the user. Then, those taxa are used as proxies and the most recent common ancestor identified to generate the final time estimates.



The TimeTree of Life from an assembly of all individual timetrees from the Time Tree of Life book. Order an offset print or download the file to print your own.


On our Results page, you can download all individual time estimates and study data associated with the query. The iPhone and iPad apps, and all chapters of the Timetree of Life book, can be downloaded by using their respective links. In addition, we will soon make available a facility to download timetrees consisting of multiple species, where users will also be able to input their own species trees. These facilities will be available for a large number of species (>50,000 species) as soon as we complete the processing and synthesis of results from over 2000 studies into this resource. In the meantime, we provide the >50,000-species timetree of life as a download here.

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