red cylinder snake

Cylindrophis ruffus

common frog

Rana temporaria


Million Years Ago (TTOL)
Mean: 352.70 Mya
Median: 352.70 Mya


red cylinder snake

Cylindrophis ruffus

common frog

Rana temporaria
352.7 Million Years Ago (TTOL)

352.7 Mya (median, 62 studies)

Click on timescale or black dots for more info.

Molecular Time Estimates

*Note: If you would like to suggest your publication for inclusion, and it is not yet in TimeTree (see list of studies), you can send us the reference information for the publication using the contact page.

Time Reference Year
348.4 Laurin et al. 2018
348.7 Delsuc et al. 2018
348.3 Feng et al. 2017
335.4 Betancur-R et al. 2015
344.9 dos Reis et al. 2015
335.3 Betancur-R et al. 2013
395.0 Aris-Brosou et al. 2013
346.7 Wang et al. 2013
342.7 Shen et al. 2012
333.3 Chen et al. 2012
366.9 Crottini et al. 2012
344.3 Shen et al. 2011
369.3 Meredith et al. 2011
358.1 Okajima et al. 2010
349.0 Inoue et al. 2010
364.1 Pyron et al. 2010
367.9 San Mauro et al. 2010
347.7 Roelants et al. 2010
354.8 Okajima et al. 2009
350.7 Alfaro et al. 2009
348.0 Zhang et al. 2009
361.2 Hedges et al. 2009
355.0 Igawa et al. 2008
352.7 Kumazawa et al. 2007
350.0 Vieites et al. 2007
353.0 Hugall et al. 2007
355.7 Pereira et al. 2006
360.0 Zhang et al. 2005
354.0 Zhang et al. 2005
382.9 Mannen et al. 1999
360.0 Kumar et al. 1998

CAUTION: We recommend that the users carefully examine individual study results provided before using summary information.

How It Works

Two species or higher taxa are queried (e.g., cat and dog).

TimeTree looks for these species in the TTOL to find their most recent common ancestor and produces the time estimate available. All studies with published times of divergence for that evolutionary split are shown in a Table format. When one or both of the species are not present in TTOL, the NCBI taxonomy is scanned to find the closest relatives of the species or higher taxa requested by the user. Then, those taxa are used as proxies and the most recent common ancestor identified to generate the final time estimates.



The TimeTree of Life from an assembly of all individual timetrees from the Time Tree of Life book. Order an offset print or download the file to print your own.


On our Results page, you can download all individual time estimates and study data associated with the query. The iPhone and iPad apps, and all chapters of the Timetree of Life book, can be downloaded by using their respective links. In addition, we will soon make available a facility to download timetrees consisting of multiple species, where users will also be able to input their own species trees. These facilities will be available for a large number of species (>50,000 species) as soon as we complete the processing and synthesis of results from over 2000 studies into this resource. In the meantime, we provide the >50,000-species timetree of life as a download here.

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