red cylinder snake

Cylindrophis ruffus




Million Years Ago (TTOL)
Mean: 796.56 Mya
Median: 736.00 Mya


red cylinder snake

Cylindrophis ruffus


796.6 Million Years Ago (TTOL)

736.0 Mya (median, 36 studies)

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Molecular Time Estimates

*Note: If you would like to suggest your publication for inclusion, and it is not yet in TimeTree (see list of studies), you can send us the reference information for the publication using the contact page.

Time Reference Year
56.4 Morinière et al. 2016
686.2 Gold et al. 2015
758.3 Gaya et al. 2015
626.5 dos Reis et al. 2015
107.1 Razkin et al. 2015
8.0 Voelker et al. 2013
560.0 Aris-Brosou et al. 2013
692.0 Parfrey et al. 2011
727.2 Gueidan et al. 2011
933.8 David et al. 2011
638.1 Berbee et al. 2010
802.0 Hedges et al. 2009
630.0 Peterson et al. 2008
560.0 Cartwright et al. 2007
1134.0 Wang et al. 2006
1076.0 Blair et al. 2005
988.0 Blair et al. 2005
579.0 Peterson et al. 2005
695.0 Douzery et al. 2004
974.0 Hedges et al. 2004
573.0 Peterson et al. 2004
925.0 Otsuka et al. 2003
970.0 Nei et al. 2001
1196.8 Heckman et al. 2001
627.0 Lynch et al. 2001
941.0 Hausdorf et al. 2000
588.0 Bromham et al. 1999
736.0 Ayala et al. 1998
830.0 Gu et al. 1998
1045.0 Feng et al. 1997
1200.0 Wray et al. 1996

CAUTION: We recommend that the users carefully examine individual study results provided before using summary information.

How It Works

Two species or higher taxa are queried (e.g., cat and dog).

TimeTree looks for these species in the TTOL to find their most recent common ancestor and produces the time estimate available. All studies with published times of divergence for that evolutionary split are shown in a Table format. When one or both of the species are not present in TTOL, the NCBI taxonomy is scanned to find the closest relatives of the species or higher taxa requested by the user. Then, those taxa are used as proxies and the most recent common ancestor identified to generate the final time estimates.



The TimeTree of Life from an assembly of all individual timetrees from the Time Tree of Life book. Order an offset print or download the file to print your own.


On our Results page, you can download all individual time estimates and study data associated with the query. The iPhone and iPad apps, and all chapters of the Timetree of Life book, can be downloaded by using their respective links. In addition, we will soon make available a facility to download timetrees consisting of multiple species, where users will also be able to input their own species trees. These facilities will be available for a large number of species (>50,000 species) as soon as we complete the processing and synthesis of results from over 2000 studies into this resource. In the meantime, we provide the >50,000-species timetree of life as a download here.

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